Spanish position on the approval of the framework agreement Baker I Plan on the conflict in Western Sahara. During the process of decolonization of Western Sahara by Spain, Morocco occupied such territory militarily, and unilaterally, as it deemed it an integral part of the country. Between and , Morocco fought a harsh war against the Polisario Front, which conducted its operations from its camps in Algeria.
In Morocco and the Polisario Front signed a ceasefire deal. The objective of MINURSO, in addition to supervising the ceasefire, was to prepare a referendum call on the future sovereignty of the territory.
The referendum had not yet been held in due to lack of political agreement between Morocco and the Polisario Front. The then special envoy of the United States for the Western Sahara conflict proposed in a framework agreement, called Baker Plan, which provided for the political autonomy of the Sahara under the sovereignty of Morocco.
However, the proposal did not prosper as Spain objected to a framework agreement that had not been accepted by the Polisario Front. Since the withdrawal from Western Sahara in , Spain has maintained a neutral position toward the conflict and has advocated a negotiated solution between the parties.
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Morocco was most concerned with the fact that Spain was going to be a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council between and , which could make it even more difficult for the UN to approve the Baker I Plan. Characteristics of the hybrid attack The main vulnerability attacked was the status quo on the delimitation, legality, and legitimacy of territorial borders in North Africa between Spain and Morocco, and specifically in the Strait of Gibraltar.
The instruments of power used were the following: Military. Occupation of the uninhabited islet by forces of the gendarmerie and, later, by the Marines of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Simultaneously, Morocco deployed a patrol vessel near the islet to provide support and deter Spanish forces from forcing their withdrawal. By presenting a fait accompli on the delimitation of territorial borders between Spain and Morocco. By persuading France not to support Spain within the European Union.
By conveying their territorial claims to the international public opinion following the fait accompli. Examples of this media campaign include the press conference of the Moroccan Foreign Minister in Paris though without the overt support of the French government. The location was allegedly chosen with the intent of reaching a broader audience.
By inviting foreign journalists to visit the islet of Perejil to reaffirm Morocco's territorial claim on the scene the visit did not take place since the Spanish military intervention was conducted prior to such a visit. The fait accompli coincided with the celebration of the Moroccan monarch's wedding, so he was able to reinforce his figure and nurture nationalism in Moroccan public opinion. Map of Ceuta, Perejil islet is in the top left Figure 2. Perejil islet The escalation took place mainly on the horizontal axis while it was poor on the vertical one.
Figure 3. Hybrid Scalation Source: MCDC Understanding Hybrid Warfare The horizontal escalation comprised reinforcing the fait accompli by carrying out political, social, and informational actions mentioned above. Finally, regarding the hybrid characteristics of the attack, the Moroccan government resorted to: Creativity. The occupation of the islet Perejil completely surprised the Spanish government. It was not preceded by any official or unofficial Moroccan claim in this regard. The very existence of the islet and its legal status was unknown to most political decision-makers and Spanish society.
Morocco took advantage of the disputed legal status of the islet.
At the same time, the reasons subsequently advanced for the occupation fight against drug trafficking, illegal immigration, and terrorism were not credible though they could not either be rejected completely particularly the fight against drug trafficking and illegal immigration. It was not easy for the Spanish government to determine which was the cause or the true intentions of the Moroccan fait accompli: was it a coercive measure to prevent Spain from opposing the Baker I Plan? Was it a challenge to determine Spain's deterrence will against other Moroccan actions on other Spanish islands or even in the cities of Ceuta and Melilla?
The fait accompli, the media campaign, and the gathering of international political support, as well as the social celebration of the Monarch's wedding took place simultaneously. Description of the response The Moroccan fait accompli was public occupation of the uninhabited islet and placement of two Moroccan flags and was quickly detected by the Spanish Civil Guard of Ceuta, who disembarked on the islet and demanded Moroccan gendarmes to leave though the latter ones refused to do so.
It was decided to counter the hybrid attack. Although the islet was irrelevant in material or strategic terms, the Moroccan action was a fait accompli on a vital interest of Spain defense of borders and territorial integrity that required a response from the government.
The possibility of ignoring the act was not envisaged since it might foster new fait accompli. Neither was that transplant a success. Had the miracle surgeon indeed replaced her trachea and not one of her bronchi, she would have been very likely dead, suffocated by the collapsing graft, just like most other recipients of cadaveric tracheas whom Macchiarini treated after Claudia. In fact, this is exactly what happened in , when Macchiarini operated another Barcelona patient of his, at another Barcelona hospital, Institut Dexeus, and without even trying to get any ethical permits for that.
At least two more patients were waiting in Barcelona to be transplanted, but Hospital Clinic denied permission and instead got rid of Macchiarini. Who then in January went to Florence, Italy, and transplanted there 5 more patients with cadaveric trachea grafts same year. They all died. A key scientist who helped Macchiarini develop the trachea transplant technology is Philipp Jungebluth.
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In he was a German medicine student mentored by Macchiarini, helping to prepare the grafts used for both Barcelona operations. Also the Hospital Clinic Barcelona was unable to provide any proof of any animal tests for graft implantations in airways. But it was not a total shot in the dark. It looks like Macchiarini knew already before he operated Claudia that her decellurised cadaveric trachea graft will collapse: the intensive decellurisation process, developed by Jungebluth on order to strip away the donor cell tissue to avoid immune rejection, destroyed the supportive cartilage rings around trachea grafts and made them floppy.
Yet this did not stop Macchiarini. Yet that cited preclinical work showed in fact something different: tracheas became progressively soft and brittle with increasing number of decellurisation cycles. The manuscript was then submitted to the Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery on June 18th, , right after Claudia was operated, and eventually published as Jungebluth et al And if you actually read that paper, using 25 cycles to decellurise a trachea was experimentally proven to bring danger. No prizes to guess why no data was shown in that paper about what happens if a trachea is exposed to 25 cycles of decellurisation.
Instead, the authors sum up:. Macchiarini and Jungebluth should have expected that. In all of these patients the grafts collapsed. One juvenile survivor lives with permanent stents along the full length of his airways, Claudia and another young woman survived because their transplants were removed.
Other 6 known patients are dead, and one of these victims came from Barcelona. One year after Claudia, Macchiarini operated another patient at the Institut Dexeus in Barcelona, where at that time he had a teaching engagement. Only her initials, age and nationality are known: DD, 55 years old, from Argentina. The graft soon detached, several interventions were needed to save this patient, but eventually she died as indirectly confirmed in this lecture min by a surgeon colleague.
Thus, following the operation on Claudia, there were at least three other female patients waiting to receive a cadaveric trachea transplant in Barcelona. Collocations: a broadcasting [corporation, company], broadcasting [systems, services], the broadcasting authority, more Australian Broadcasting Services Amendment Online Services - legal Beijing Broadcasting Institute broadcast- broadcasting Broadcasting Broadcasting figures Broadcasting hours broadcasting operation broadcasting system Carriage broadcasting host broadcasting production International Sports Broadcasting It is not, but we are not broadcasting for ourselves.
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